Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The accompanying consolidated and combined financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to U.S. GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). The consolidated and combined financial statements include accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates include valuing derivatives, options and warrants using the Binomial Lattice and Black-Scholes models, and analysis of the recoverability of goodwill and long-lived assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates, particularly given the significant social and economic disruptions and uncertainties associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 control responses.
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Company measures and records certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis. U.S. GAAP provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority, referred to as Level 1, to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. The next priority, referred to as Level 2, is given to quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; that is, markets in which there are few transactions for the asset or liability. The lowest priority, referred to as Level 3, is given to unobservable inputs. The table below reflects the level of the inputs used in the Company’s fair value calculations:
Inputs used in the Company’s Level 3 calculation of fair value are discussed in Note 11.
There were no assets or liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2019.
The Company is required to disclose fair value information about financial instruments when it is practicable to estimate that value. The carrying amounts of the Company’s cash, accounts receivable, other receivables, accounts payable, other current liabilities, convertible notes payable and notes payable approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these financial instruments and/or because related interest rates offered to the Company approximate current rates.
Cash consists of deposits held at financial institutions and is stated at fair value. The Company limits its credit risk associated with cash by maintaining its bank accounts at major financial institutions.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company maintained restricted cash of $1,250,336 and $336, respectively. The $1,250,000 of restricted cash held at December 31, 2020 is collateral for the true-up provision discussed in Note 11. The restricted cash is maintained in a segregated bank account.
For purposes of the cash flow statements, the restricted cash is aggregated with cash of $678,468 and $500,681 to arrive at total cash and restricted cash of $1,928,804 and $501,017 at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
ACCOUNTS AND OTHER RECEIVABLES
The Company monitors its exposure for credit losses on its receivable balances and the credit worthiness of its receivables on an ongoing basis and records related allowances for doubtful accounts. Allowances are estimated based upon specific customer and other balances where a risk of default has been identified, and also include a provision for non-customer specific defaults based upon historical experience. The majority of the Company’s accounts are from customer credit card transactions with minimal historical credit risk. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company has not recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts. If circumstances related to specific customers change, estimates of the recoverability of receivables could also change.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value, and consist primarily of restaurant food items, supplies, beverages and merchandise.
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation and amortization, which includes amortization of assets held under capital leases, are recorded generally using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets or, if shorter, the term of the lease for certain assets held under a capital lease. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the expected lease term or the estimated useful lives of the related assets using the straight-line method. Maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the useful lives of the assets are not considered assets and are charged to expense when incurred.
The estimated useful lives used to compute depreciation and amortization are as follows:
The fair value of trade name/trademarks are estimated and compared to the carrying value. The Company estimates the fair value of trademarks using the relief-from-royalty method, which requires assumptions related to projected sales from its annual long-range plan; assumed royalty rates that could be payable if the Company did not own the trademarks; and a discount rate. Certain of the Company’s trade name/trademarks have been determined to have a definite-lived life and are being amortized on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives of 10 years. The amortization expense of these definite-lived intangibles is included in depreciation and amortization in the Company’s consolidated and combined statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Certain of the Company’s trade name/trademarks have been classified as indefinite-lived intangible assets and are not amortized, but instead are reviewed for impairment at least annually or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist.
Intangible assets are recorded for the initial franchise fees for our Hooter’s restaurants. The Company amortizes these amounts over a 20-year period, which is the life of the franchise agreement. The Company also has intangible assets representing the acquisition date fair value of customer contracts acquired in connection with BGR’s franchise business. The Company also amortizes these amounts over its estimated useful life of the related intangible asset and amortizes the related asset over the weighted average life of the underlying franchise agreements.
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, operating lease assets, and purchased intangible assets subject to depreciation and amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Some of the events or changes in circumstances that would trigger an impairment test include, but are not limited to:
If circumstances require a long-lived asset or asset group be tested for possible impairment, the Company first compares undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset or asset group to its carrying value. If the carrying value of the long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment is recognized to the extent that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques, including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.
During the third quarter of 2019 and continuing in 2020, the Company determined that triggering events occurred some of which were related to the COVID-19 outbreak requiring management to review the certain long-lived assets for impairment. As discussed in Note 1, in March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus COVID-19 a global pandemic. Due to the continued impact of this pandemic on the Company’s business, management has performed an impairment analysis of its long-lived assets at each quarter end in 2020 including December 31, 2020 and determined that the carrying value of the Company’s trade name/trademark intangible asset, property and equipment and operating lease assets (see notes 5,6, and 12 for further discussion) were impaired. The determination was based on the best judgment of management for the future of the asset and on information known at the time of the assessment.
Goodwill, which is not subject to amortization, is evaluated for impairment annually as of the end of the Company’s year-end, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change, such as material deterioration in performance or a significant number of store closures, that would indicate an impairment may exist. Goodwill is tested for impairment at a level of reporting referred to as a reporting unit. Management determined that the Company has one reporting unit.
As discussed in Note 1, in March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus COVID-19 a global pandemic. Due to the continued impact of this pandemic on the Company’s business, management has performed an impairment analysis of goodwill as of each quarter end in 2020, including December 31, 2020.
When evaluating goodwill for impairment, the Company may first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit is impaired. If the Company does not perform a qualitative assessment, or determines that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, a quantitative assessment is performed to calculate the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to reduce the carrying value to the estimated fair value. The Company’s decision to perform a qualitative impairment assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including the significance of the excess of the reporting unit’s estimated fair value over carrying value at the last quantitative assessment date, the amount of time in between quantitative fair value assessments, and the price of our common stock.
Step one of the impairment test is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of net assets, including goodwill balances, to the fair value of net assets. The Company performed a quantitative assessment at each quarter end and determined that goodwill was not impaired due to the excess fair value of the reporting unit over its carrying value based on the best judgement of management for the future of the reporting unit and on information known at the time of the assessment.
FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION
Assets and liabilities denominated in local currency are translated to U.S. dollars using the exchange rates as in effect at the balance sheet date. Results of operations are translated using average exchange rates prevailing throughout the period. Adjustments resulting from the process of translating foreign currency financial statements from functional currency into U.S. dollars are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current earnings. The Company has determined that local currency is the functional currency for its foreign operations.
The Company generates revenues from the following sources: (i) restaurant sales; (ii) management fee income; (iii) gaming income; and (iv) franchise revenues, consisting of royalties based on a percentage of sales reported by franchise restaurants and initial signing fees.
Restaurant Sales, Net
The Company records revenue from restaurant sales at the time of sale, net of discounts, coupons, employee meals, and complimentary meals. Sales tax and value added tax (“VAT”) collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are presented on a net basis within revenue in our consolidated and combined statements of operations.
Management Fee Income
The Company received revenue from management fees from certain non-affiliated companies in 2019, including from managing its investment in Hooters of America, which are generally earned and recognized over the performance period. No management fee income has been recognized during the year ended December 31, 2020.
The Company receives revenue from operating a gaming facility adjacent to its Hooters restaurant in Jantzen Beach, Oregon. Revenue from gaming is recognized as earned from gaming activities, net of payouts to customers, taxes and government fees. These fees are recognized as they are earned based on the terms of the agreements.
The Company grants franchises to operators in exchange for initial franchise license fees and continuing royalty payments. The license granted for each restaurant or area is considered a performance obligation. All other obligations (such as providing assistance during the opening of a restaurant) are combined with the license and were determined to be a single performance obligation. Accordingly, the total transaction price (comprised of the restaurant opening and territory fees) is allocated to each restaurant expected to be opened by the licensee under the contract. There are significant judgments regarding the estimated total transaction price, including the number of stores expected to be opened. We recognize the fee allocated to each restaurant as revenue on a straight-line basis over the restaurant’s license term, which generally begins upon the signing of the contract for area development agreements and upon the signing of a store lease for franchise agreements. The payments for these upfront fees are generally received upon contract execution. Continuing fees, which are based upon a percentage of franchisee revenues and are not subject to any constraints, are recognized on the accrual basis as those sales occur. The payments for these continuing fees are generally made on a weekly basis.
Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue resulting from initial and renewal franchise license fees paid by franchisees, which are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying franchise agreement, as well as upfront development fees paid by franchisees, which are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying franchise agreement once it is executed. The recognition of initial and renewal license fees are accelerated if the development agreement is terminated. Approximately $165,000 and $215,000 of revenue related to contract liabilities was recognized during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
RESTAURANT PRE-OPENING AND CLOSING EXPENSES
Restaurant pre-opening expenses consist of the costs of hiring and training the initial hourly work force for each new restaurant, travel, the cost of food and supplies used in training, grand opening promotional costs, the cost of the initial stocking of operating supplies and other direct costs related to the opening of a restaurant, including rent during the construction and in-restaurant training period. Restaurant opening expenses are expensed as incurred.
Restaurant closing expenses consist of costs related to closing a restaurant location and include, among other things lease termination costs and franchise breakage fees directly related to the closure. Impairment charges associated with closed locations are recorded as a component of asset impairment charges. Restaurant closing costs are expensed as incurred.
The costs of obtaining non-transferable liquor licenses that are directly issued by local government agencies for nominal fees are expensed as incurred. The costs of purchasing transferable liquor licenses through open markets in jurisdictions with a limited number of authorized liquor licenses are capitalized as indefinite-lived intangible assets and included in other assets. Liquor licenses are reviewed for impairment annually or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Annual liquor license renewal fees are expensed over the renewal term.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses which are included in restaurant operating expenses and general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated and combined statements of operations, totaled approximately $273,000 and $500,000 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
We determine if a contract contains a lease at inception. Our material operating leases consist of restaurant locations and office space. Our leases generally have remaining terms of 1-20 years and most include options to extend the leases for additional 5-year periods. Generally, the lease term is the minimum of the non-cancelable period of the lease or the lease term inclusive of reasonably certain renewal periods up to a term of 20 years. If the estimate of our reasonably certain lease term was changed, our depreciation and rent expense could differ materially.
Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, we estimate incremental borrowing rates corresponding to the reasonably certain lease term. We estimated this rate based on prevailing financial market conditions, comparable company and credit analysis, and management judgment. If the estimate of our incremental borrowing rate was changed, our operating lease assets and liabilities could differ materially.
In April 2020, the FASB staff issued a question and answer document (“FASB Q&A”) focused on the application of lease accounting guidance to lease concessions provided as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Under existing lease guidance, the Company would have to determine, on a lease-by-lease basis, if a lease concession was the result of a new arrangement reached with the tenant or if a lease concession was under the enforceable rights and obligations within the existing lease agreement. The FASB Q&A allows the Company, if certain criteria have been met, to bypass the lease-by-lease analysis, and instead elect to either apply the lease modification accounting framework or not, with such election applied consistently to leases with similar characteristics and similar circumstances. The Company elected to apply such relief and availed itself of the election to avoid performing a lease-by-lease analysis for the lease concessions received as the concessions granted as relief were due to the COVID-19 pandemic and result in the cash flows to the landlord remaining substantially the same or less.
The compensation cost relating to share-based payment transactions (including the cost of all employee stock options) is required to be recognized in the consolidated and combined financial statements. That cost is measured based on the estimated fair value of the equity or liability instruments issued. A wide range of share-based compensation arrangements including share options, restricted share plans, performance-based awards, share appreciation rights and employee share purchase plans are included.
The Company did not have an active stock-based compensation plan in 2020.
Deferred income taxes are provided on the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax basis. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
In connection with the Merger and Spin-Off, Amergent performed an analysis of the existing net operating loss carryforwards of Chanticleer and, based on the rules of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”), has determined that Amergent has approximately $18,960,000 of net operating loss carryforwards available to the Company as of April 1, 2020 to offset future taxable income of the Company. Approximately $7,245,000 of the net operating loss carryforwards available will be limited by section 382 of the IRC. There were no other income tax implications to Amergent as a result of the Merger and Spin-off.
The Company has provided a valuation allowance for the full amount of the deferred tax assets in the accompanying consolidated and combined financial statements.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties relating to any income tax obligations. The Company currently has no federal or state examinations in progress, nor has it had any federal or state tax examinations since its inception. The last three years of the Company’s tax years are subject to federal and state tax examination.
LOSS PER COMMON SHARE
The Company computes net loss per share using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Basic and diluted net loss per share are the same because the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents, which comprise the entire amount of the Company’s outstanding warrants, as described in Note 10, and the potential conversion of the convertible debt, as described in Note 7, would be anti-dilutive.
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
Standards for reporting and displaying comprehensive income (loss) and its components (revenues, expenses, gains and losses) in a full set of general-purpose financial statements requires that all items that are required to be recognized under accounting standards as components of comprehensive income (loss) be reported in a financial statement that is displayed with the same prominence as other financial statements. We are required to (a) classify items of other comprehensive income (loss) by their nature in financial statements, and (b) display the accumulated balance of other comprehensive income (loss) separately in the equity section of the balance sheet for all periods presented. Other comprehensive income (loss) represents foreign currency translation adjustments.
RECENTLY ADOPTED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” along with related clarifications and improvements. This pronouncement requires lessees to recognize a liability for lease obligations, which represents the discounted obligation to make future lease payments, and a corresponding right-of-use asset on the balance sheet. The guidance requires disclosure of key information about leasing arrangements that is intended to give financial statement users the ability to assess the amount, timing, and potential uncertainty of cash flows related to leases. The Company elected the optional transition method to apply the standard as of the effective date and therefore, the Company has not applied the standard to the comparative period presented in its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The practical expedients elected in connection with the adoption of Leases Topic 842 were as follows:
Upon adoption of Leases (Topic 842), the Company recorded operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities and derecognized deferred rent liabilities (including unamortized tenant improvement allowances) and favorable/unfavorable lease assets and liabilities upon transition. Upon adoption, the Company recorded operating lease liabilities of approximately $22.1 million based on the present value of the remaining rental payments using discount rates as of the effective date. In addition, the Company recorded corresponding operating lease right-of-use assets of approximately $19.8 million, calculated as the initial amount of the Company’s operating lease liabilities adjusted for deferred rent (including unamortized tenant improvement allowances) and unamortized favorable/unfavorable lease assets and lease liabilities. As of December 31, 2020, the Company maintained an operating lease right-of-use assets of approximately $9.9 million, and operating lease liabilities (current and long-term) of approximately $16.2 million.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board “FASB” issued Accounting Standards Update “ASU” 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 requires companies to measure credit losses utilizing a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires a consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 as of January 1, 2020 did not result in a material change to our consolidated and combined financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40)”: Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (“ASU 2018-15”), which clarifies the accounting for implementation costs in cloud computing arrangements. The adoption of ASU 2018-15 as of January 1, 2020 did not result in a material change to our consolidated and combined financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”. The new guidance improves and clarifies the fair value measurement disclosure requirement of ASC 820 (“ASU 2018-13”). ASU 2018-13 provides new disclosure requirements that include the changes in unrealized gains or losses included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurement held at the end of the reporting period and the explicit requirement to disclose the range and weighted average used to develop significant unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements. The other provisions of ASU 2018-13 also include eliminated and modified disclosure requirements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2018-13 as of January 1, 2020 did not have a material impact on the consolidated and combined financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (Topic 350)” which provides for the elimination of Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. If impairment charges are recognized, the amount recorded will be the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value with certain limitations. The guidance is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2017-04 as of January 1, 2020 did not have a material impact on the consolidated and combined financial statements.
RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options” to address the complexity associated with applying U.S. GAAP to certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. ASU 2020-06 includes amendments to the guidance on convertible instruments and the derivative scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity and simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments which include beneficial conversion features or cash conversion features by removing certain separation models in Subtopic 470-20. Additionally, ASU 2020-06 will require entities to use the “if-converted” method when calculating diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 (fiscal year 2022 for the Company), including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the new standard to determine the potential impact on its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and financial statement disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740)”. The objective of the standard is to improve areas of GAAP by removing certain exceptions permitted by ASC 740 and clarifying existing guidance to facilitate consistent application. The standard will become effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2021. The Company is currently evaluating the new standard but does not expect adoption to have a material impact on its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and financial statement disclosures.
We reviewed all other recently issued accounting pronouncements and concluded that they were either not applicable or not expected to have a significant impact to the condensed consolidated and combined financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef